Glossary (A - H)

Note: The following material is reproduced with permission from the California Debt Issuance Primer published by the California Debt and Investment Advisory Commission. This material appears as Appendix C to the Debt Issuance Primer. Cross references, where indicated, are to the relevant section of the Primer. The Primer may be ordered from the Commission at (916) 653-3269 or by writing to the Commission at 915 Capitol Mall, Sacramento, California 95814.


Acceleration     TOP

A remedy provided in many security agreements (including many indentures and bond resolutions) by which the trustee may declare all future payments of principal immediately due and payable after the occurrence of certain specified events, usually called events of default.

In some security agreements the Trustee may be required to accelerate upon the occurrence of an event of default. Sometimes acceleration can occur only upon the consent or direction of a credit enhancement provider or only upon the request of the holders of a specified percentage of the bonds (often 25%).

Generally, unless the security agreement provides otherwise, acceleration results in available moneys being used first to pay interest pro-rata on all the bonds and, if interest is fully paid, to pay principal pro-rata on all maturities. As a result, all the bonds are placed on an equal footing, regardless of their scheduled maturity.

Accrued Interest     TOP

In general, interest that has been earned on a bond, but not yet paid--usually because it is not yet due.

More specifically, this term is often used to refer to interest earned on a bond from its dated date to the closing date.

Additional Bonds     TOP

“Additional Bonds” is a term found in indentures, trust agreements, bond resolutions and other bond issuance documents referring to bonds which may be issued in the future in addition to the bonds being issued under the document initially. Almost always, these bonds are on a parity with the bonds being issued initially and may not be issued without meeting certain conditions involving the level of revenues available to repay the initial bonds and additional bonds, maximum amount limitations and other conditions. These conditions are often referred to as the “Additional Bonds Test.” See Parity.

Ad Valorem Taxes     TOP

An annual tax which is a uniform percentage of the value (or assessed value) of property.

Advance Refunding     TOP

See Refunding.

Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT)     TOP

An income tax based on a separate and alternative method of calculating taxable income and a separate and alternative schedule of rates.

With respect to bonds, the interest on certain types of qualified private activity bonds (not including qualified 501(c)(3) bonds) is included in income for purposes of the individual and corporate alternative minimum tax.

In addition, the interest received by a corporation on all bonds held by it is included in federal corporate adjusted net book income and adjusted current earnings, a portion of which may increase the alternative minimum taxable income of such corporation.

Amortize     TOP

To retire the principal of an issue by periodic payments either directly to bondholders, or first to a sinking fund and then to bondholders. Compare to Balloon and Bullet.

Annual Report     TOP

The annual report is the report containing annual financial and operating data prepared and filed with the NRMSIRs and State Information Depository (if any) pursuant to SEC Rule 15c2-12.

Arbitrage Bonds     TOP

See “General Federal Tax Requirements.

Arbitrage Yield Restriction     TOP

With respect to municipal bonds, "arbitrage" is the profit made by issuing bonds bearing interest at tax-exempt rates, and investing the proceeds at materially higher taxable yields.

The Internal Revenue Code limits the opportunity for borrowers to use moneys associated with tax-exempt bonds to acquire materially higher yielding taxable investment property. However, certain exceptions are provided. In particular, exceptions are provided for reserve accounts and for investments during temporary periods.

To the extent arbitrage is legally earned in respect of tax-exempt bonds issued after August 15, 1986, it may be required to be paid over to the federal government pursuant to the rebate requirement.

If it is necessary for the yield on the investment of proceeds to be limited, the yield restriction may not be used as a device to transfer the benefits of arbitrage to another person or entity. As a result, the yield restricted investment must be in either SLGS or tax-exempt bonds or must be in taxable investments which are purchased at a market price and which are of an appropriate maturity (without regard to yield).

Assessments     TOP

Assessments are charges in the nature of taxes upon property owners to pay the costs of facilities or improvements that benefit the property.

Payment of the amount assessed (together with interest if not paid upon assessment) is secured by a direct fixed lien on the property. The assessed payments are either used directly to pay the costs of the facilities and improvements or, if paid over time, are used to repay bonds issued to finance such costs. "Special assessment" financing proceeds are used for improvements relating to the property, such as sidewalks, streets, gutters, sewers, and water systems. "Benefit assessment" financing proceeds are used for items with a less tangible relationship to the assessment, and are based on a determined benefit to the landowner (i.e. parking and flood control projects).

See also "Types of Financing Instruments -- Assessment Bonds."

Authenticating Agent     TOP

The agent of the Issuer appointed to authenticate bonds (to sign them as being authentic) upon initial issuance or upon transfer or exchange.

See also "Principal Participants of a Debt Financing -- Roles and Responsibilities of Principal Participants -- Trustee/Fiscal Agent/Paying Agent/Registrar/ Authenticating Agent."

Balloon     TOP

Principal of an issue to be paid in a single final maturity which constitutes a large percentage of the total principal of the issue. See also Bullet.

Bank Eligible Bonds     TOP

Bonds (including COPs) which are eligible under federal banking law (the Glass-Steagall act) to be underwritten by commercial banks.

Bank eligible bonds generally include bonds which are directly or indirectly the obligations of the general fund of a city, county or state and bonds for single family or multifamily housing.

Bank Qualified Bonds     TOP

Tax-exempt bonds which are issued by certain qualified small issuers and which do not need to be taken into account for purposes of determining the portion of certain financial institutions' interest expense which is disallowed as a deduction for federal tax purposes because such interest expense is allocable to debt (including deposits) deemed to have been incurred by the financial institution to carry tax-exempt bonds.

Basis Point     TOP

See Point.

Blind Pool Issue     TOP

See Pooling of Debt Issues.

Blue Sky Laws/Blue Sky Survey or Memorandum     TOP

Blue sky laws are the state statutes which regulate the manner of offering and selling of securities, bonds, investment contracts and stocks.

These statutes are commonly referred to as "Blue Sky Laws," because their purpose is to prevent, as the United States Supreme Court put it in 1917, "speculative schemes which have no more basis than so many feet of blue sky."

Generally, in a public offering a memorandum called a "Blue Sky Survey" is prepared which summarizes the treatment of the issue under the securities laws of each state and, occasionally, the laws of Puerto Rico, Guam, the District of Columbia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The preliminary form of this memorandum specifies the states in which the issue need not be registered in a manner similar to SEC registration (i.e., no filings need be made), those states in which action will be taken by the issuer to register the offering, and those states in which registration is required but not contemplated and in which the securities may not, therefore, be permitted to be offered or sold. The final Blue Sky Survey generally reports that the registration actions contemplated by the preliminary survey have been taken.

Certain types of securities are generally exempted from registration under most Blue Sky Laws on the theory that the Issuer either is a government organization or is supervised by a government organization (even if the government organization has not approved the specific security to be issued). One such common exemption is for municipal bonds. However, several states do not exempt some or all conduit financings from registration, unless there is an independent exemption for the nongovernmental borrower (e.g., the exemptions for exchange-listed or "blue chip" companies or public utilities).

Certain transactions are also exempted, whether or not the securities being sold are exempted securities. The most familiar are the private placement exemption and the exemption for offers and sales to broker-dealers and institutional investors such as banks, savings institutions, trust companies, insurance companies, investment companies and pension or profit-sharing trusts.

The above exemptions -- whether for certain securities or transactions -- are only exemptions from registration of the issue and not exemptions from the anti-fraud provisions of the state law or from the requirement for a broker-dealer to register as such.

Bond Counsel     TOP

See "Principal Participants of a Debt Financing -- Roles and Responsibilities of Principal Participants -- Bond Counsel."

Bond Insurance     TOP

Noncancellable insurance purchased by the issuer from a bond insurer pursuant to which the insurer promises to make scheduled payments of interest, principal and mandatory sinking fund payments on an issue if the issuer fails to make timely payments.

When an issue is insured, the investor relies upon the creditworthiness of the insurer rather than the issuer (or in addition to the issuer).

Payment of an installment by the insurer does not relieve the issuer of its obligation to pay that installment. The issuer remains liable to pay that installment to the insurer.

Insurance agreements are subject to negotiation. Often, the insurers will require that the indenture or bond resolution treat the insurer as if it were a major owner of bonds. The insurer's consent is often necessary to amend the financing agreements. In addition, the insurer is sometimes given the right to accelerate the payment of principal if the insurer is ever required to make a payment.

See also "Principal Participants of a Debt Financing -- Roles and Responsibilities of Principal Participants -- Credit Enhancement Provider."

Bond Printing     TOP

The printing of bonds on special paper designed to be difficult to counterfeit.

Bond Purchase Contract or Agreement     TOP

In a negotiated sale, the bond purchase contract is an agreement between an issuer and an underwriter or a group of underwriters (a syndicate or a selling group who have agreed to purchase the issue.

A bond purchase contract generally contains the following:

(i)         the purchase price to be paid by the underwriter (including any premium or discount) (see also Underwriter's Gross Spread);

(ii)         certain terms of the bonds, such as interest rates, maturities, redemption provisions, and original issue discount;

(iii)        the circumstances under which the underwriter may cancel its obligation to purchase the issue (e.g., changes in the tax treatment of the bonds and other events which would make it substantially more difficult for the underwriter to sell the bonds to investors);

(iv)        the good faith deposit, if any;

(v)         the conditions to the closing of the issue, which often include documents, certificates and opinions which are to be delivered on the closing date; and

(vi)        any restrictions on the liability of the issuer.

Other common names for a bond purchase contract are "contract of purchase" or "bond purchase agreement."

In a competitive sale, the notice of sale, the underwriter's bid and the issuer's acceptance of the bid together constitute a bond purchase contract. Generally, these three items, taken together, contain items similar to those in a negotiated bond purchase contract.

See “Principal Participants in a Debt Financing – Basic Legal Documents.”

Bond Resolution     TOP

See Indenture/Bond Resolution.

Book Entry Only Registration     TOP

A form of registration of the ownership of registered bonds in which the owners of bonds are not entitled to the receipt of printed bonds.

Rather, the terms of the bonds are specified by the indenture or bond resolution or by the form of a single bond delivered to a securities depository, and the beneficial ownership of bonds is determined by entries on the registration books of the registrar or by the records of members of the securities depository.

The sale of a bond issued in book entry form is evidenced by a receipt provided by the broker/dealer to the investor and not by the issuance of a new registered bond with the owner's name.

Bullet      TOP

Principal of an issue to be retired in a single final maturity which constitutes all of the principal of the issue.

A bullet issue has no amortization of principal or sinking fund redemption prior to its final maturity. There may, however, be a sinking fund to accumulate the amount necessary to make the final maturity payment.

Call      TOP

To give notice of redemption; to redeem.

Capital Appreciation Bond     TOP

See Compound Interest Bond.

Capitalized Interest (Funded Interest)     TOP

Bond proceeds which are reserved to pay interest on an issue for a period of time early in the term of the issue; also called funded interest. Also refers to the interest to be so paid.

Commonly, in a project financing interest is capitalized through the date on which it is anticipated that construction of the project being financed with the proceeds will be completed and on which the project will be in operation and capable of providing revenues for repayment of debt service.

Cash-flow     TOP

A comparison of cash receipts (revenues) to required payments (generally, debt service and operating expenses).

A cash-flow may demonstrate that receipts by an issuer from revenues from a project or a mortgage portfolio or from collection of a tax, fee or other charge will be sufficient to equal or exceed in each year the sum of payments of principal of and interest on an issue and related expenses, generally on the basis of specified assumptions which may include a "worst case" scenario.

A cash-flow may also be used in the context of exhibiting that payments of principal and interest received on investments held in an escrow will be received at such times and in sufficient amounts to equal or exceed debt service on the issue for which the escrow fund has been established, such as is required for an advance refunding.

Finally, in a tax and revenue anticipation note financing, a cash-flow may be used to determine the amount of the issuer's operating deficit which is a factor in determining the permitted size of the issue under federal tax rules. See "Types of Financing Instruments -- Tax and Revenue Anticipation Notes; Grant Anticipation Notes."

Cash-flow Financing     TOP

A financing in which the proceeds of the issue are used to pay current expenses of the issuer when the issuer's current income is temporarily insufficient for that purpose.

Also sometimes called TRANS, TANS or RANS (tax and revenue anticipation notes). The issue is customarily scheduled to be repaid when current income exceeds current expenses. The issue typically has a term of one year or less. See "Types of Financing Instruments -- Tax and Revenue Anticipation Notes; Grant Anticipation Notes."

Certificate of Participation (COP)     TOP

A certificate (which looks very much like a bond) representing an undivided interest in the payments made by a public agency pursuant to a financing lease (or an installment purchase agreement). Also known as COPs.

A portion of each lease payment (and, therefore, a portion of each interest in a lease payment) is designated as being principal, and the remainder as interest. Even though COPs are not treated as indebtedness of the issuer under state law (particularly the California Constitution), the federal tax law treats the lease obligation as if it were a debt, and, as a result, the interest component of each lease payment may be treated as tax-exempt interest.

See also "Types of Financing Instruments -- Financing Leases and Certificates of Participation."

Closing Date (Delivery Date)     TOP

The date on which an issue is delivered by the issuer to, and paid for by, the original purchaser (often an underwriter). Also called the delivery date.

This may be a different date than the sale date or the dated date.

Comfort Letter     TOP

A letter provided by the issuer's (or sometimes in a conduit financing by the nongovernmental borrower's) certified public accountant at the time of the signing of the bond purchase contract and on the closing date, which letter confirms that specified financial information regarding the borrower contained in the Preliminary Official Statement or final Official Statement is presented in conformity with generally accepted auditing standards and that no changes in the financial position of the borrower since the date of the last audited financial statements, other than those changes disclosed in the comfort letter or in the official statement, have occurred.

The comfort letter often contains items of "special comfort," which generally confirm that financial information presented in the Official Statement (preliminary or final) is accurately presented or calculated. The content of comfort letters is regulated by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, and, as a result, the content and style differ only minimally between accounting firms.

Commercial Paper     TOP

Notes of varying very short term maturities (generally one to 90 days) which are intended to be "rolled over" in a series of current refundings as portions of the issue mature from time to time.

Generally, the maturity of the commercial paper sold on each rollover is determined by market conditions at the time of rollover. See also Line of Credit and Letter of Credit.

Competitive Sale     TOP

The sale of bonds to the bidder presenting the best sealed bid at the time and place specified in a published notice of sale (also called a "public sale").

When bonds are to be sold at a competitive sale, the issuer typically specifies all of the terms of the issue other than interest rates and purchase price. When the issue is ready to market, the issuer solicits bids by placing a notice of sale in one or more industry publications such as The Wall Street Journal or The Bond Buyer and, if required by law, in a local newspaper of general circulation. In the notice of sale the issuer announces that it will accept sealed bids up to a certain date and time. Prior to presenting bids the underwriters evaluate the credit quality of the issue and the municipal market and may form syndicates or selling groups. The bonds are awarded to the underwriters presenting the best bid based on the criterion specified in the notice of sale. Possible criteria include the Net Interest Cost (NIC) method or the net effective interest rate or True Interest Cost (TIC) method of comparing the cost to the issuer of the financing. See also Negotiated Sale.

Composite Issue     TOP

Two or more issues having substantially identical terms and which are sold and delivered at the same time (by one or more issuers).

Generally, each issue is used to finance a separate project or purpose. The proceeds are not "pooled;" but instead, the issues are "pooled" into a "composite issue" for purposes of marketing. A single official statement is used to sell the issues. These issues usually require bond insurance or a letter of credit to guarantee each issue so that the credit rating and marketing of the bonds is based on the insurance company or bank. This equalizes unlike credits in the eyes of investors. See also Pooling of Debt Issues.

Compound     TOP

To treat accrued interest as if it were principal, so that interest thereafter accrues on the sum of the principal and the compounded interest.

Compound Interest Bond     TOP

A bond on which interest is not payable until maturity (or earlier redemption), but compounds periodically to accumulate to a stated maturity amount.

These bonds are also called capital appreciation bonds or "CABs" and are sometimes misnamed "zero coupon bonds."

Conduit Financing     TOP

A financing in which the proceeds of the issue are loaned to a nongovernmental borrower who then applies the proceeds for a project financing or (if permitted by federal tax law for a qualified 501(c)(3) bond) for working capital purposes.

Typically, the project financed is owned and operated by the borrower, but projects may also be financed for lease to the private user or for sale pursuant to an installment sale contract.Statutes authorizing conduit financings generally specify the nature of the projects which may be financed and limit such projects to those with a specified public purpose. See also “Types of Financing Instruments – Conduit Revenue Bonds.”

Conduit Issuer     TOP

A governmental agency which issues bonds in connection with a conduit financing.

Continuing Disclosure     TOP

The ongoing disclosure provided by an issuer or obligated person pursuant to an undertaking entered into to allow the underwriter to comply with SEC Rule 15c2-12. See “Continuing Disclosure and Investor Relations.”

Continuing Disclosure Agreement     TOP

An agreement (sometimes a certificate) of an issuer or an obligated person containing undertakings to provide annual reports and event notices pursuant to SEC Rule 15c2-12. See “Principal Participants in a Debt Financing – Basic Legal Documents.”


See Certificate of Participation.

Costs of Issuance     TOP

Costs of issuance are the expenses paid by or on behalf of the issuer in connection with the sale and issuance of bonds.

These expenses may include, but are not limited to, bond counsel's fees, disclosure counsel fees, trustee's fees, financial advisor's fees, feasibility consultant's fees, accounting fees, costs of printing the bonds, costs of printing the Official Statement or other disclosure documents, costs associated with obtaining a credit rating, and underwriter's gross spread. For some types of bonds the costs of issuance can be paid from the proceeds.For other types of securities, (e.g., Qualified Private Activity Bonds) the costs of issuance borrowed as part of the issue are limited to 2% of the proceeds.

Coupon Bond     TOP

A bond which generally has a number of interest coupons attached to it and which is transferable by merely delivering it to its new owner.

Each coupon is a negotiable instrument representing interest to be paid on the bond for a specified period, usually six months. To receive an interest payment on a coupon bond, the holder must detach the coupon and present it at the office of the trustee or paying agent (or at the holder's own bank if the bank is willing to provide the service of presenting the coupon for payment).

Coupon bonds are sometimes referred to as "bearer bonds," since payment may be made to any bearer of the bond or coupon, rather than to a particular registered owner. Coupons which represent less or more than six months interest are sometimes referred to as "short coupons" or "long coupons," respectively.

Tax-exempt coupon bonds with maturities longer than one year may no longer be issued. However, the interest rate on a bond is still sometimes referred to as the "coupon rate." Compare to Registered Bond.

Covenants     TOP

Contractual obligations in financing agreements whereby the party making the promises agrees to perform or refrain from performing certain actions or to comply with certain requirements.

Most issuer covenants are found in the indenture or bond resolution pursuant to which the bonds are issued.  However, in a conduit financing, the covenants of the nongovernmental borrower are often set forth in a loan agreement. The following covenants are typical issuer covenants:

(i)                  Payment of bonds - a covenant that the issuer will punctually pay the principal of and interest on the bonds from the revenues which have been pledged to pay the bonds.

(ii)                Extension of payment of the bonds - a covenant that the issuer will not extend or consent to the extension of the maturity of the bonds.

(iii)               Offices for servicing bonds - a covenant that the issuer will maintain a relationship with an agency, such as a paying agent, in a designated location where bonds may be presented for payment, registration, transfer or exchange.

(iv)               Further assurances - a covenant, to the extent authorized by law, to comply with reasonable requests of the trustee to perform, execute or deliver such acts as may be necessary to confirm the pledge under the indenture.

(v)                 Rate covenant - a covenant that the issuer will establish and collect charges with respect to the project or the program loans sufficient to meet expenses and debt service, perhaps with coverage.

(vi)               Restriction on sale or disposal - a covenant not to sell or lease the project or to sell program loans, except as specifically authorized in the financing documents.

(vii)              Limitation on operating expenses and other costs - a covenant not to incur operating expenses and other costs in excess of the reasonable and necessary amount of such expenses.

(viii)            Insurance covenant - a covenant to maintain insurance against various events, such as fire, casualty, flood, earthquake, theft, liability or, in the case of a lending program, mortgage default.

(ix)              Reconstruction; application of insurance proceeds - a covenant to repair or reconstruct the project with the proceeds of insurance, or if it does not make economic sense to repair or reconstruct the project, insurance proceeds would be applied to the redemption of the bonds.

(x)                Payment of taxes and charges - a covenant to pay and discharge all taxes and fees imposed in connection with the project or the program except taxes and fees which are contested by proper legal proceedings.

(xi)              Tax covenant - a covenant that the issuer will not take any action or consent to any party taking any action which will cause interest on the bonds to be subject to federal income taxation or to cause the bonds to be arbitrage bonds.

(xii)             Maintenance of the project - a covenant by the issuer to use its best efforts to acquire, construct and maintain the project with due diligence and in a sound and economic manner.

(xiii)           Additional bonds - a covenant not to issue any bonds whose security is equal to or superior to that of the existing issue unless certain "additional bonds" tests (often including historical or projected coverage ratios) are satisfied.

(xiv)            Maintenance of books and records - a covenant to maintain financial records relating to project or program revenues and costs in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

(xv)             Noncompetition - a covenant not to operate, and perhaps (to the extent permitted by law) not to permit the operation of competing enterprises.

Coverage     TOP

The extent to which revenues in addition to the amount necessary to pay operating expenses and debt service are required to be collected by a rate covenant or by the conditions to the issuance of additional parity bonds.

For example, the bond resolution pursuant to which water revenue bonds are issued may require the issuer to maintain fees and charges for the sale of water at levels sufficient to enable it to collect in each year the amount necessary to pay all of its water system operating expenses, debt service on the bonds plus an amount equal to 25% of debt service on the bonds. The additional 25% is referred to as coverage.

Credit Enhancement Provider/Credit Enhancement     TOP

See "Principal Participants of a Debt Financing -- Roles and Responsibilities of Principal Participants -- Credit Enhancement Provider."

Credit Rating/Credit Rating Agency     TOP

See "Principal Participants of a Debt Financing -- Roles and Responsibilities of Principal Participants -- Credit Rating Agency."

Crossover Refunding     TOP

See Refunding.

Current Refunding     TOP

See Refunding.


The acronym for Committee on Uniform Security Identification Procedures, which was established under the auspices of the American Bankers Association to develop a uniform method of identifying municipal, United States government and corporate securities.

A separate CUSIP number is assigned for each maturity of each issue and is printed on each bond.

Date of Issuance/Original Issuance Date     TOP

The date of issuance is the same as the closing date; however, the "original issuance date," as used on the standard registered bond form, is the same as the dated date.

Dated Date     TOP

The first date from which interest is deemed to accrue on a bond.

The dated date is typically printed on the front of the bond and can be before or as of the closing date, but not after the closing date. For fixed rate bonds, the dated date is generally the first day of the calendar month in which the bonds are sold. For variable rate bonds, the dated date is generally the closing date.

Debt Limit     TOP

A statutory or constitutional limit on the amount of debt that an issuer may incur or that it may have outstanding at any one time.

The constitutional debt limit for California cities and counties is found in the California Constitution at Article XVI, Section 18, and for the State of California is found at Article XVI, Section 1. See “State Constitutional Limitations – The 1879 Constitution – The Debt Limit.” California statutes also provide debt limits for a number of different entities. See generally "Types of Financing Instruments."

Debt Service     TOP

The total of Interest, Principal and mandatory Sinking Fund Payments.

Debt Service Account (Bond Account or Principal, Interest and Redemption Accounts)     TOP

The account or accounts into which the issuer makes periodic deposits to assure the timely availability of sufficient moneys for the payment of debt service on an issue.

Debt Service Reserve Account     TOP

See Reserve Account.

Dedicated Pool     TOP

See Pooling of Debt Issues.

Deemed Final     TOP

Under SEC Rule 15c2-12, prior to bidding for, offering or selling bonds, an underwriter must obtain and review an Official Statement (usually a Preliminary Official Statement) deemed final as of its date by the issuer.

Default/Event of Default     TOP

Failure to make prompt payment on a bond or otherwise comply with other covenants in the financing agreements.

Indentures and bond resolutions commonly provide for some short period of time (a "cure period") to correct a failure to comply with a covenant, before a simple default becomes an event of default that allows acceleration and certain other remedies to be pursued. In conduit financings, a default may also occur if the nongovernmental borrower becomes the subject of bankruptcy proceedings.

Defeasance     TOP

The termination of the rights and interests (including the pledge of revenues but not including the right to payment) of the bondholders under the indenture or bond resolution upon final payment or provision for payment of all debt service on the bonds, all in the specific manner required by the indenture or bond resolution.

In an advance refunding, the defeasance of the bonds being refunded is generally accomplished by placing in an escrow sufficient high quality investments to provide for payment of debt service on the bonds to redemption or maturity.

Delivery Date     TOP

See Closing_Date.

Demand Bond (Put Bond or Tender Option Bond)     TOP

A bond for which the holder has the right to sell the bond back to the issuer, a nongovernmental borrower or another party at specified times and for a specified price (usually par).

Variable rate bonds generally have a demand feature. The demand feature gives the holder investment flexibility and protection against fluctuating market interest rates and other risks. The interest rate rises or falls in step with market rates, and the holder has the option to keep the bond or to demand the purchase of the bond in accordance with the holder's investment needs.

"Demand bonds" are sometimes referred to as put bonds or tender option bonds because the holder can "put," or has an option to "tender," the bond back to the issuer.

Put bonds that are tendered are customarily remarketed. If not, they may be purchased using moneys available for that purpose, including advances under a Line of Credit or draws under a letter of credit.

Denomination     TOP

The face amount of a bond, generally its original principal amount. Usually the denominations are $5,000 or any integral multiple of $5,000. In some short term or variable rate financings, denominations may be multiples of $100,000 or in multiples of $5,000 in excess of $100,000.

For compound interest bonds, denominations may be expressed in terms of either original principal amount (in which case they may be odd dollar amounts, such as $127.55) or compounded maturity or conversion amount (in which case they will commonly be multiples of $5,000).

Disclosure     TOP

Providing to investors (usually in the form of an official statement) all material facts relating to an Issue.

Disclosure Counsel     TOP

See "Principal Participants of a Debt Financing -- Roles and Responsibilities of Principal Participants – Disclosure Counsel."

Discount     TOP

The amount, if any, by which the principal amount or par value of a bond exceeds its sale price. See also Underwriter's Gross Spread (Underwriter's Discount).

Original Issue Discount (O.I.D.)     TOP

The amount by which the principal amount or par value of a bond exceeds the offering price to the public at the time it is originally sold, or if sold in a private placement, the price to its first purchaser.

If the original issue discount is greater than approximately 2% or 3%, the bonds are sometimes referred to as "deep discount" bonds. The original issue discount is generally treated as tax-exempt income to the investor if held to maturity and if interest on the bond is otherwise tax-exempt to the investor. When the investor sells the bond before maturity, any profit realized on such sale is determined (for federal income tax purposes) with respect to the investor's adjusted basis in the security. The adjusted basis is determined by adding to the investor's original cost the portion of the original issue discount allocable to the period that the investor held the bond.

The total amount of original issue discount and its allocation over time are determined in accordance with the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code and the rules and regulations of the Internal Revenue Service. To the extent the sale price of bonds exceeds their original cost plus allocable O.I.D., such excess may be treated as taxable gain. Conversely, if the sale price is less than the original price plus allocable O.I.D., the difference may be treated as a loss for federal income tax purposes.

Dissemination Agent     TOP

An agent appointed pursuant to a Continuing Disclosure Agreement for the purpose of filing annual reports and event notices with NRMSIRs and state information repositories. See generally “Continuing Disclosure and Investor Relations.”

Due Diligence     TOP

The inquiry made to reveal or confirm facts about the issuer, the issue and the security for the issue that would be material to a prudent investor in making a decision to purchase the issue.

Due diligence inquiries are made by underwriters and lawyers to determine, for example, whether the issue follows the purpose and scope outlined by the enabling legislation, statutes, and resolutions of the issuer and whether all material facts have been accurately disclosed in the Official Statement. Courts have generally concluded that participants who demonstrate that they have conducted reasonable investigations resulting in a reasonable belief in the accuracy and sufficiency of the disclosure document have satisfied their responsibilities under the disclosure laws relating to municipal bonds.

Economic Useful Life     TOP

The period over which an asset may reasonably be expected to yield economic benefit to its owner.

Because economic factors can render property useless for its intended purpose long before the property deteriorates physically, the economic useful life of an asset is often different from its physical life. The maturity of an issue of bonds generally may not exceed 120% of the weighted average useful life of financed facilities if interest on the bonds is to be tax-exempt. In determining the economic useful life for this purpose, a safe harbor is available by reference to periods prescribed by the Internal Revenue Service under its Asset Depreciation Range ("ADR") system.

Enterprise     TOP

A defined revenue-producing set of facilities which are operationally integrated and which have a common service purpose.

An enterprise may consist of all of the facilities of a special district such as a municipal water district or may consist of only a portion of the assets of a general purpose governmental entity such as the water system of a city.

With respect to certain types of revenue bonds, the specification of the extent of the enterprise is important, because it is the revenues of the enterprise that provide the security for the bonds.

Escrow Agent     TOP

With respect to an advance refunding, the commercial bank or trust company retained to hold the investments purchased with the proceeds of the refunding and, customarily, to use the amounts received as payments on such investments to pay debt service on the refunded bonds.

Event Notice     TOP

A notice delivered to the NRMSIRs and any state information depository in connection with a listed event. See generally “Continuing Disclosure and Investor Relations.”

Event of Default     TOP

See Default.

Exempt Facilities     TOP

As defined in the Internal Revenue Code, airports, docks and wharves, mass commuting facilities, facilities for the furnishing of water, sewage facilities, solid waste disposal facilities, qualified residential rental projects, facilities for the local furnishing of electric energy or gas, local district heating or cooling facilities, and qualified hazardous waste facilities.

Qualified private activity bonds are permitted to be issued for exempt facilities.

Feasibility Consultant     TOP

The person or firm retained, customarily by the issuer, to express an opinion (customarily printed as an appendix to the Official Statement) on the economic feasibility of a facility, enterprise, or lending program to be undertaken with the proceeds of an issue.

Feasibility consultants are retained for a wide variety of different types of financings, ranging from large single projects such as a hydroelectric power plant to lending programs such as a multideveloper single family mortgage revenue program. The objective of a feasibility report is to provide an assessment of one or more aspects of the economic feasibility of the purpose of a financing. The views of the feasibility consultant are taken into account by the credit rating agencies and investors in the process of marketing the bonds.

Financial Advisor     TOP

See "Principal Participants of a Debt Financing -- Roles and Responsibilities of Principal Participants -- Financial Advisor."

Financing Lease     TOP

The document by which the issuer leases to another public entity (the "obligor") the project to be acquired or constructed with the proceeds of the issue and by which the obligor agrees to make periodic lease payments to the issuer, generally for the period of time the issue is outstanding.

An Installment Purchase Contract or Installment Sale Agreement is a similar instrument by which the issuer sells, rather than leases the project to the obligor, which agrees to purchase the project by making periodic payments ("installments"). Whether lease payments or installments, such payments are designed to be sufficient to pay debt service on the issue. The choice whether to structure a financing utilizing the municipal lease, installment purchase contract or loan agreement often depends upon state law requirements such as Constitutional debt limits and the authorization to lease property.

Fiscal Agent     TOP

A commercial bank or trust company designated by an issuer under the indenture or bond resolution to act as a fiduciary and as the custodian of moneys relating to an issue.

The fiscal agent's duties typically are limited to receiving moneys from the issuer which are to be held in funds and accounts created under the indenture or bond resolution and (when acting as paying agent) paying out principal and interest to bondholders. See also "Principal Participants of a Debt Financing -- Roles and Responsibilities of Principal Participants -- Trustee/Fiscal Agent/Paying Agent/Registrar/Authenticating Agent."

Fixed Rate     TOP

An interest rate which is set at the time a bond is issued and which does not vary during the term of the bond.

Compare to Variable Rate.

Floating Rate     TOP

See Variable Rate.

Flow of Funds     TOP

The provisions of an indenture or bond resolution pursuant to which pledged revenues are periodically allocated in a specified priority to accounts, if any, for operating expenses, debt service, the bond reserve account, redemption of bonds prior to maturity, other reserves, surplus, etc.

Funded Interest     TOP

See Capitalized Interest.

Foreclosure     TOP

A lawsuit by which the issuer of assessment or Mello Roos bonds enforces the payment obligation against a defaulting landowner by suing to have the property sold to repay the debt. Issuers in these “land-secured” financings promise in the bond documents to prosecute foreclosure actions against defaulting landowners.

Foreclosure and Workout     TOP

The incidence of defaults and other payment problems on Mello-Roos and assessment bonds has risen markedly over the past several years, due largely to the fluctuation of the real estate market in California. Because issuers have a duty under the bond documents to enforce the special tax or assessment payment obligations, they have often been compelled to file foreclosure actions against defaulting landowners. In many cases the payment problems have also led to workout efforts by issuers, sometimes with the assistance of the original financing team, and other times with a new team brought in for this purpose.

Some issuers have shown flexibility in forgiving interest and penalties, which can be helpful in resolving a payment problem. Also, there is a procedure that allows the issuer to seek permission from bondholders to sell foreclosed property for less than the amount owing on the special tax lien, but this procedure is cumbersome and may involve a principal loss to the bondholders. There is also recently enacted legislation in California that would permit landowners to tender Mello-Roos bonds in lieu of payment in, which means that if the bonds could be purchased for a discount on the open market, the special tax lien can be extinguished for less money than if it were paid in cash.

Finally, the increasing number of defaults in Mello-Roos and assessment financings over the past several years has shown that those financings can be severely affected by a downturn in the real estate market. To avoid future problems, more scrutiny may be appropriate at the outset. Is the financing wise from a public policy perspective? If a real estate developer is involved in the financing, does the developer have a good track record? Have the appraisals supporting the financing been prepared by competent and experienced professionals? Is the real estate market likely to support the financing long-term? These are some of the questions that may need to be asked.

Good Faith Deposit     TOP

A deposit made by an underwriter with an issuer of a new issue as assurance that the underwriter will proceed with the closing of the purchase of such issue if the issuer meets all of the conditions of the Bond Purchase Contract.

The good faith deposit is commonly 1% of the par value of the issue, and generally is provided in the form of a certified or cashier's check. In the case of a competitive sale, each bidder submits a good faith check with its bid, the check is returned to the bidder if its bid is not accepted, and the deposit of the successful bidder is retained by the issuer until the issue is delivered and paid for at the closing. In a negotiated sale, the underwriter delivers the good faith deposit at the time the Bond Purchase Contract is entered into and the deposit is held by the issuer until the closing. In the event the winning bidder or underwriter fails to take delivery of and pay for the new issue for reasons other than those permitted under the notice of sale or the Bond Purchase Contract, the good faith deposit may be retained by the issuer as liquidated damages.

Governmental Bonds     TOP

Bonds which are not Private Activity Bonds.

Gross Proceeds     TOP

See Proceeds.

Gross Revenues     TOP

See Revenues.

Guaranteed Investment Contract     TOP

See Investment Agreement.

Hedge Bonds     TOP

Bonds issued substantially in advance of when moneys will be needed for the purpose being financed, in order to hedge against subsequent interest rate increases.

The Internal Revenue Code contains specific limitations on tax-exempt hedge bonds (as defined therein).